LEDs, Sleep and SAD –Innovations in Light

Philips Wake Up Light

Philips Wake Up Light

In the past, most people just bought light bulbs without a thought. It was simply about light. There weren’t many extra considerations. Today’s lighting purchase might be made with intelligent applications and even therapeutic reasons in mind, such as seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

Light can help prevent or lessen the symptoms of SAD. According to WebMD, as many as 3% of Americans can suffer from SAD in the winter. When people are exposed to less natural light they may develop depression and anxiety, oversleep, and even have difficulty concentrating. Some people who live in extreme areas that depend on artificial light during long winter months without sunlight can use artificial light derived from LED light bulbs for some SAD relief.

Until now, most SAD sufferers needed special light boxes for SAD-related light therapy. LEDs are a natural light therapy source. Light from almost all LEDs used for lighting, displays and even TVs tend to naturally skew towards the blue part of the spectrum. Blue light stimulates a photoreceptor in the eye that reduces the production of the hormone melatonin and helps people stay awake.

LED lighting companies have begun to leverage blue light for those with seasonal disorders and even sleep issues.

Philips tackled the issue of the lack of light during polar winter in a town in the Arctic, Longyearbyen, Svalbard, where they experience dark for four months straight. Longyearbyen is the northernmost town in the world with 2,000 inhabitants (outnumbered by 3,000 polar bears). For two months, 186 volunteers used the Philips Wake-up Light for a study.  Already proven to work in a number of independent clinical studies, the Philips Wake-up Light was used to help wake up the volunteers with gradually increasing LED light prior to the alarm.

After using the Philips Wake-up Light for six weeks during the polar winter, 87% of residents said that they wake up feeling more refreshed, alert and ready for the day. Philips reported that 98% of residents said they would continue to use the Philips Wake-up Light rather than their previous method of waking up.  You can see a video about the experiment here.

Philips also has designed Philips goLITE BLU to help stave off the winter blues. The goLITEBLU provides the right level of blue light to help regulate a body’s clock and improve mood and energy levels. It is more efficient than traditional white light boxes, producing more concentrated light in a considerably smaller form factor.

For those challenged to wake up without hitting the snooze button repeatedly, there’s the Philips HF3500/60 Wake-Up Light that leverages both music and light to wake you up.  Here’s a link to an entertaining review written by a snooze button addict from Gizmodo.

Lighting Science’s Awake and Alert LED lamp brings more blue light to help people stay awake, while the company’s Good Night light reduces the blue light to help people sleep. The company also has designed the Rhythm Downlight with an app that can keep a sleep schedule for shift workers, those in extra long nights in cold climates and even those in space. The app syncs up with a specially designed digital LED light bulb. When it’s time to begin waking, the bulb will emit more blue light to help you wake up. But when it’s time go to sleep, the percentage of blue light is reduced, turning on your melatonin so you can sleep.

For Further Reading

Discover Magazine, Smart Bulb Helps You Sleep and Wake on Schedule, http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2014/04/04/smart-bulb-helps-you-sleep-and-wake-on-schedule/#.U0K5m_l90xF

The New York Times, LEDs Change Thinking about the Light Bulb, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/06/technology/personaltech/leds-change-thinking-about-the-light-bulb.html?_r=0

Philips, Philips Wake Up the Town, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wotUrbYs0QI

Philips, Wake up the Town: Arctic Experiment Results, http://www.digitalnewsroom.philips.com/pressreleases/Wakeup_light_campaign/Philips_Wake_up_the_town_Final_results_report.pdf

Gizmodo, A Light-Up Alarm Completely Changed My Life, http://gizmodo.com/a-light-up-alarm-completely-changed-my-life-1535668863

The Business Standard, Lights are no longer just for lighting, http://www.business-standard.com/article/beyond-business/lights-are-no-longer-just-for-lighting-114031401155_1.html

Opportunities for Sapphire – A New Look at Smartphones, Tablets and Even Smartwatches

This week, we’ll take a look at smartphones, tablets and smartwatches and the market opportunity that these consumer devices present for sapphire. Sapphire can be used in a number of ways in them ranging from LEDs for the backlighting display and LEDs for the camera flash to sapphire material for use camera lens covers and home button covers. There’s even speculation that they could be used for front cover plates in smartphones.

Recently, smartwatches and “wearables” have become “fashionable” so we’ll take a look at sapphire in smartwatches too. The infographic in this post points to the number of ways that sapphire could be used in smartphones and tablets.

Opportunities for Sapphire: Smartphones and Tablets

Opportunities for Sapphire: Smartphones and Tablets

Let’s take a closer look at the market for smartphones and tablets.  Backlighting has been a very fertile area for LEDs. The market penetration of LEDs in backlighting displays for mobile phones, tablets, LED camera flash and keyboards is nearly 100 percent. But, let’s look at the numbers.

First, 2013 was a groundbreaking year for smartphones. According to market research firm Gartner, smartphone sales surpassed feature phone sales for the first time with smartphones accounting for 53.6% of overall mobile phone sales for the year.  Overall, Gartner says that 968 million smartphone device units out of a total of 1.8 billion mobiles were sold in 2013. Given that there’s an opportunity to sell sapphire for multiple uses in each smart phone, that’s quite a bit of sapphire. And, even feature phones present an opportunity for sapphire in backlighting, camera flashes and camera lens covers.

In tablets, the opportunity for sapphire is in the same applications, but with a twist. Backlighting is a good opportunity with even more display real estate that larger tablet screens represent.  Many tablets also feature a front facing camera and a back facing camera, doubling the opportunity for camera flashes and protective camera lens covers. According to Gartner, worldwide sales of tablets to end users reached 195.4 million units in 2013. Again, that’s a good opportunity for sapphire.

Wearables like smartwatches are an emerging market and a new opportunity for sapphire. As a traditional cover for watches, sapphire is a natural cover for smartwatches as vendors like Samsung, Omate and the Wellograph Wellness Watch already use sapphire covers in their smart watches. JP Morgan estimates that the smartwatch market size could reach US$26 billion by 2018. This is up from less than US $1 billion in 2013. Once again, that’s a good opportunity for sapphire.

For Further Reading

Tech Crunch, Gartner: Smartphone Sales Finally Beat Out Dumb Phone Sales Globally In 2013, With 968M Units Sold, http://techcrunch.com/2014/02/13/smartphones-outsell-dumb-phones-globally/

Gartner, Gartner Says Worldwide Tablet Sales Grew 68 Percent in 2013, With Android Capturing 62 Percent of the Market,  http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2674215

CNet, Wellograph’s sleek new Sapphire Wellness Watch sparkles with style at CES 2014 (hands-on)

http://reviews.cnet.com/watches-and-wrist-devices/sapphire-wellness-watch/4505-3512_7-35833913.html

The Smart Watch Review, Apple Might Have Big Plans for Sapphire and its iWatch, http://www.thesmartwatchreview.com/apple-might-have-big-plans-for-sapphire-and-its-iwatch/

JP Morgan, Smartwatch Market, https://markets.jpmorgan.com/research/email/-pefp7bj/GPS-1320515-0

Sapphire Inside: Apple Builds Sapphire Lens into New Home Button, Touch ID

iPhone 5S with the Touch ID includes a sapphire lens

iPhone 5S with the Touch ID includes a sapphire lens on the home button

Today, Apple announced two new models of the iPhone, the iPhone 5S and  the iPhone 5C. One of the biggest news items at the Apple event is that the new iPhone 5S will sport a whole new home button with a fingerprint sensor with a sapphire lens, ringed in stainless steel.

Sapphire, the second hardest material on Earth after the diamond, is scratch resistant, so it should be very well suited for use as a lens. While this is great news for the sapphire community, this is not the only use for sapphire in a smart phone. Many smart phone OEMs already use sapphire for the camera lens cover because of its scratch resistance, but also is used for the LEDs in the backlighting for the screens as well as the silicon-on-sapphire (SOS)-based RFIC chips that power the RF antennas. There are more places for use of sapphire in a smart phone as well since OEMS are looking to use SOS chips for digitally tunable capacitors (DTCs) and power amplifiers. And, don’t forget sapphire’s largest overall market, LEDs, for lighting, displays and more.

Apple claims that Touch ID reads a fingerprint at an entirely new level by scanning sub-epidermal skin layers with 360 degree reading capabilities.  The sensor is part of the home button which is 170 microns thick with a 500 ppi resolution.  Touch ID stores the encrypted fingerprint info securely in a “secure enclave” inside the new A7 chip, the new processor for the iPhone 5S.  The neat thing is that it should be able to store multiple fingers.  The Touch ID will enable you to purchase items on iTunes, the AppStore or iBooks without a password.

You can see where the sapphire is in this photo of the home button from CNet’s live blog of the Apple event:

iPhone 5S graphic illustrates parts of the Touch ID (from CNet)

iPhone 5S graphic illustrates parts of the Touch ID (from CNet) with sapphire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The iPhone 5S (and the 5C) go on pre-sale on September 13th and will be on sale in stores on September 20th.

For Further Reading

Engadget, iPhone 5S fingerprint sensor called Touch ID, recognizes your thumb on the Home button: here’s how it works and what it does, http://www.engadget.com/2013/09/10/iphone-5s-fingerprint-sensor/

 

Happy Birthday LED! LEDs Turn 50!

Nick Holonyak created the first visible-spectrum LED in 1962. Photo: Courtesy of Nick Holonyak/GE

50 years ago on October 9, 1962, GE scientist Dr. Nick Holonyak, Jr., invented the first practical visible-spectrum light-emitting diode (LED) while his colleagues were working on a laser using light in the invisible IR spectrum.  According to Holonyak, he was mystified that his colleagues were using invisible IR light. “If they can make a laser, I can make a better laser than any of them because I’ve made this alloy that is in the red-visible,” said Holonyak. “And I’m going to be able to see what’s going on. And they’re stuck in the infrared.”

GE scientist Dr. Robert N. Hall was working toward realizing a semiconductor laser in the infrared with GaAs (Gallium arsenide), Holonyak aimed for the visible with GaAsP (gallium arsenide phosphide). On October 9th, with GE colleagues looking on, Holonyak became the first person to operate a visible semiconductor alloy laser, the device that illuminated the first visible LED.

His colleagues at GE at the time dubbed the device ‘the magic one’ because its light, unlike infrared lasers, was visible to the human eye.  Holonyak was confident that he was onto something big.  In a GE interview, he remembers feeling that he was onto something big when ‘the magic one’ first lit up.  “I know that I’m just at the front end but I know the result is so powerful,” he said.  “There’s no ambiguity about the fact that this has got a life way beyond what we’re seeing.”

Today, LEDs can be used for a range of lighting and industrial applications from simple indicator lights to LED street lights, LED light bulbs for the home, office and commercial applications in retail including Home Depot, IKEA, Starbucks, Target, and Wal-mart, and even to regional grocery and convenience stores like Food City and Wawa.  LEDs also are used for display and backlighting in stadium TVs to consumer HDTVs and today’s smart phones and tablets like the iPad.

For Further Reading and Viewing

GE Video Interview, Nick Holonyak, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KKkzBVNozjI

Solid State Technology, GE News Release, LED Inventor Nick Holonyak Reflects on Discovery 50 Years Later, http://www.electroiq.com/semiconductors/2012/10/10/led-inventor-nick-holonyak-reflects-on-discovery-50-years-later.html

LED 50th Anniversary Symposium,  http://www.led50years.illinois.edu/

Wired, How Lasers Inspired the Inventor of the LED, http://www.wired.com/design/2012/10/holonyak-laser-led-inventor/

 

Emerging Markets for Sapphire, Part 1 — SoS

SoS improves performance and integration for RF circuits found in smart phones.

While LED is the largest market for sapphire, there are several other emerging markets that take advantage of the physical attributes of sapphire.  We’ll take a look at these emerging markets over the next month or so.   We will begin with Silicon on Sapphire (SoS) for the RFIC market.

SoS is a part of the Silicon on Insulator (SOI) family of CMOS (Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) technology for making integrated circuits.  SoS improves performance and integration for RF circuits.  The holy grail of the wireless industry has been finding a better way to optimize power consumption and real estate utilization in mobile phones.  One application for SoS technology is the production of RF chips used in the antenna switch in smart phones.  These SoS chips are significantly smaller and use less power than chips traditionally used for this application.  As a result, chips produced using SoS technology are rapidly gaining market share in the mobile phone industry.

Peregrine Semiconductor is a pioneer in SoS and holds much of the industry’s IP in SoS.  In an interview with EE Times in 2011, Dr. Ronald E. Reedy, Peregrine co-founder said, “SoS is the first and most successful form of SOI focused entirely on improving performance and integration for RF circuits. We saw the emerging need for such a technology when commercial wireless communications started taking off in the early 1990s.”

What makes sapphire so good for SoS? Peregrine summarized it in a paper on the history on SoS. Sapphire and silicon have a unique way of lining up together at an atomic level because of oxygen atoms.  The scientific explanation is that the r-plane of sapphire has oxygen atoms spaced at a distance that is close to the spacing of the atoms in the (100) plane of a silicon crystal.  The spacing delivers unique insulating properties when the silicon is layered on top of the sapphire wafer.  This was discovered by researchers at Boeing in 1963.  Researchers at RCA continued the development of SoS technology into the mid-1970s and continue to process them for space applications.

Technological barriers leading to defects held SoS back from commercial applications until just recently.  Peregrine has been able to overcome these hurdles at just the right time as the wireless industry needs the insulating and power saving benefits of SoS for the latest generations of smart phones.  You’ll find more coverage of the emerging market in posts to come.

For Further Reading:

Electronics Weekly, Peregrine: Single chip phone RF is possible http://www.electronicsweekly.com/Articles/14/02/2012/52966/peregrine-single-chip-phone-rf-is-possible.htm

EE Times, What’s up with silicon on sapphire?, http://www.eetimes.com/design/microwave-rf-design/4216449/What-s-up-with-silicon-on-sapphire-

Peregrine Semiconductor Corporation, The History of Silicon on Sapphire, www.psemi.com/articles/History_SOS_73-0020-02.pdf

Clearlysapphire.com, http://www.clearlysapphire.com/SoS_RFIC.html