New industries are finding man-made sapphire a desirable material. The field of medicine is looking at sapphire for its optical transmission range, durability and chemical inertness for bio-compatibility.
Sapphire’s optical properties and durability offer advantages for specific medical laser applications in dermatology, ophthalmology and dentistry. Sapphire is widely used in surgical systems for its laser transmission, high resistance to heat and non-thrombogenic properties (meaning it doesn’t promote clotting). It is used as a laser window for endoscope lenses, laser hair removal systems and blood cell counters. In addition, sapphire products are used for surgical tools, implants, braces. Sapphire microscalpels are transparent blades that make it easier to visualize and illuminate capillary vessels, nerves, cutting zones and cutting depth compared with traditional metal alternatives.
One area that has potential for sapphire is in artificial joint replacements. Many joint replacements include metal, ceramic, metal-polymer and ceramic polymer endoprosthesis.This is an area that may develop friction and wear over time causing the joint to fail. Endoprostheses made of metal and ceramics may interact with the body and also degrade from friction over time. For example, metal-on-metal artificial hips have a lifetime of 15 to 30 years, but have been known to fail earlier. Sapphire is attractive for endoprostheses for its bio-compatibility since it is chemically inert and won’t react with the body as well as its low friction coefficient, hardness and durability
For Further Reading
The New York Times, The High Cost of Failing Artificial Hips, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/28/business/the-high-cost-of-failing-artificial-hips.html?pagewanted=all
IMS Research/Rubicon Technology, White Paper: Opportunities for Sapphire, Jamie Fox, http://rubicontechnology.com/resources/papers,
Sapphire: Material, Manufacturing, Applications, by E. R. Dobrovinskaya, Leonid A. Lytvynov, V. V. Pishchik. Springer Sciences Business Media, ISBN: 978-1441946737.